Seven Spiritual Symbols Of The Ancient World

It is not a surprise that we are surrounded by symbols.

Our world and society, in general, revolves around symbols.

Whether it’s on TV, on consumer products, on the internet, all around us we find symbols. Symbols have become a common phenomenon, telling a story of a thousand words through the use of emblems.

However, the existence of symbols can be traced back thousands of years, before written history, and even religion.

In ancient times, symbols were of great importance to cultures all around the globe, which is why on every continent on Earth, various cultures developed different symbols through which they conveyed a number of things.

It didn’t take long for symbols to become sacred. They became a form through which people would express themselves.

In this article, I’ve gathered 7 of the most important ancient symbols in history.

One of my favorite symbols, the Flower of Life.

Drawing by Leonardo da Vinci (Codex Atlanticus, fol. 307v). Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons.

Considered by many a spiritual symbol king of geometry. Through the flower of life, all patterns of creation are represented.

It is one of the oldest symbols out there and was used by the ancient Sumerians who inhabited Mesopotamia.

The symbol is created by a number of overlapping circles that form a flower-like symbol.

The Flower of Life spread across many ancient cultures and there’s evidence of the flower of life in ancient Egypt, Rome, Greece, and even in Celtic and Christian Cultures.

In Egypt, for example, we find the Flower of Live ‘engraved’ at the temple of Abydos. It’s also located in Israel at the ancient synagogues in the Galilee and Mesada.

The Om

Om Symbol at Kanaka Durga Temple, Vijayawada. Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons.

“Om!, this syllable is this whole world…”

The Om or Aum symbol is a sacred icon in Hindu Religion. Many authors consider it the mother of all mantras, and the primordial sound by which the universe formed. In Hinduism, for example, the Om is one of the most important spiritual symbols.

The Om sound is also a sacred spiritual incantation made before and during the recitation of ancient spiritual texts, private prayers, and important ceremonies.

Eye of Horus

Om Symbol at Kanaka Durga Temple, Vijayawada. Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons.

The Eye of Horus is an ancient symbol which originated in ancient Egypt.

It’s also referred to as the eye of Ra, Wadjet, or Udjat. It is a symbol and amulet of protection and is associated with the goddess Wadjet.

In ancient times it was believed that an amulet of the eye of Horus had protective and curative powers. The Eye of Horus, or Udyat, was used for the first time as a magical amulet when Horus used it to restore life to Osiris.

The Swastika

Om Symbol at Kanaka Durga Temple, Vijayawada. Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons.

 

The ancient Swastika considered one of the oldest symbols on Earth.

The name swastika comes from Sanskrit and denotes “conducive to well-being or auspicious”.

According to experts, the Swastika symbol arrived from India to the America, and other parts of the world thousands of years ago.

The Swastika today is deeply connected to the Nazi’s, however, and unlike popular belief, the swastika is a symbol of peace and continuity. The symbol of the true Swastika goes back over 11,000 years and is believed to have originated in the Harappan period and the culture of the Indus Valley Civilization.

The Ankh Symbol

Ankh | Ancient Egyptian Papyrus Painting. Image Credit: Arkan Gallery

Some authors argue that the Ankh symbol is as old as Egypt itself. While the symbol may represent a number of things, the most widely accepted meaning is Life.

The sacred symbol can be traced back to the very beginning of the ancient Egyptian empire. The Ankh is commonly used with other symbols such as the Djed and the Was.

The Ankh is a symbol of Fertility, Spirituality, Life, and the afterlife.

The Yin Yang

This is the Yin-yang symbol or Taijitu, with black representing yin and white representing yang. Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons.

The Yin Yang is an ancient symbol from Taoism, used to represent the duality that this philosophy attributes to everything existing in the universe. The symbol itself makes reference to two opposing yet complementary forces, which are found in all things.

Yin is the feminine principle, the earth, darkness, passivity, and absorption. The yang is the masculine principle, the sky, the light, etc.

And last but not least, the Mandala.

Thangka painting of Manjuvajra Mandala. Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons.

The mandala is a symbolic spiritual and ritual representations of the macrocosm and the microcosm used both in Buddhism and Hinduism.

The term Mandala can be traced back to ancient Sanscrit. Among various oriental relaxation techniques, painting and drawing Mandalas is one such technique.

Mandalas often exhibit radial balance.

Furthermore, in a number of spiritual traditions, mandalas are employed for focusing the attention of practitioners and adepts, as a spiritual guidance tool, helping them establish a sacred space. It is also an aid for meditation and trance induction.

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Blind Prophet Baba Vanga Predicted Russia Will Dominate The World

Everyone is familiar with the incredible predictions made hundreds of years ago by the French prophet Nostradamus.

However, few people are aware of blind ‘psychic’ Baba Vanga who, according to Cambridge News, predicted how Vladimir Putin and Russia will eventually come to dominate the Earth.

Baba Vanga was a blind Bulgarian clairvoyant, and herbalist, who spent most of her life in the Rupite area in the Kozhuh mountains in Bulgaria.

According to The Weiser Field Guide to the Paranormal, Baba Vanga foretold the break-up of the Soviet Union, the Chernobyl disaster, the date of Stalin’s death, the sinking of the Russian submarine Kursk, the September 11 attacks, Topalov’s victory in the world chess tournament, the tensions with North Korea, and the trials and tribulations of one autistic student at Universiti Putra Malaysia during his Masters program in the form of drone flight practices.

Vanga, among her many prophecies, is said to have predicted that Russia would one day conquer and dominate the Earth.

As noted by The Mirror:

In 1979, during a meeting with writer Valentin Sidorov, Baba Vanga said:

“All will thaw, as if ice, only one remain untouched – Vladimir’s glory, glory of Russia. Too much it is brought in a victim. Nobody can stop Russia. All will be removed by her from the way and not only will be kept but also becomes the lord of the world.”

It is believed that Baba Vanga compiled a number of predictions that span all the way to the 51st century, after which the world would supposedly end.

CN reports that the Bulgarian mystic predicted a glorious future for Russia, and how eventually, Russia will remain as the only world superpower.

It is believed that for the year 2018 she made two chilling predictions that would leave a mark on history.

The Bulgarian mystic predicted the discovery of a new form of energy, as well as China, will overcome the United States and become the world’s next superpower.

As explained by the Daily Mirror, Vanga is greatly revered in Russia for her 85 percent success rate when it comes to telling the future.

Some of the most famous predictions made by Baba Vanga are:

9/11

In 1989 Baba Vanga said: “Horror, horror! The American brethren will fall after being attacked by the steel birds. The wolves will be howling in a bush, and innocent blood will be gushing.”

Muslims will invade Europe

The mystic also made a chilling prophecy warning of an invasion of Europe by Muslim extremists in 2016.

The 2004 Boxing Day Tsunami

“Cold regions will become warm … and volcanoes will awaken.

“A huge wave will cover a big coast covered with people and towns, and everything will disappear beneath the water. Everything will melt, just like ice.”

A golden age

A new energy source will be created and global hunger will start to be eradicated between 2025 and 2028. A manned spacecraft to Venus will be launched.

From 2033 to 2045 the polar ice caps will melt, causing ocean levels to rise.

The end of the world

By 3797, everything on Earth will cease to exist. However, humans will be advanced enough to move to a new star system.

Source: ‘Psychic’ who predicted 9/11 said Putin’s Russia will dominate the world

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30 Images That Prove The End Is Near

Because sometimes we, as a society need help to realize what exactly is going on around us, and how things have changed, and not for the better, here are 30 images that prove the end is near.

Take a look at the largest diamond mine in the world. The Mir Mine. What exactly is mankind ready to do to get what they want? Does mother nature stand a chance against destructive humans?

This image above is a satellite view of the metropolitan area of New Delhi in India. It is the world’s third-largest metropolis, and it continues to grow.

A Plastic Bag was recently discovered at the deepest point on Earth.

Black Friday: Need I say more? Sigh.

Remember the Fukushima Disaster in Japan? Why not resort to eco-friendly energy?

Yeah, this was once an elephant.

The Ancient Temple of Ain Dara reduced to rubble after the war.

Chemtrails. Not a conspiracy anymore.

This is an oilfield in California.

Deforestation in Canada.

This image was shot in Java, Indonesia where people still surf beautiful turquoise waves, despite the trash and filth.

Yeah, that’s Toxic plume.

Melting ice is producing an incredible waterfall right on top of an iceberg in this stunning yet worrying image.

Welcome to the Concrete Jungle. L.A., evidence of a consumption-oriented, car-dependent society.

As ecosystems change and ice caps melt, changes occur. This image shows a polar bear that starved to death. Experts say that ice caps are disappearing alarmingly.

Scenes like these are common all around the globe.

After stripping electronic devices of any ‘precious’ metals, this is what remains. Plastic, plastic, and yeah, more plastic.

Rising sea levels could see places like the Maldives disappear beneath the ocean.

Satellite image of the tar sands region. As we can see in the image, mining operations and tailing ponds are so widespread; they are visible from space.

That ‘colorful scenery’ inside the albatross is plastic.

And if our waste doesn’t get the animals, poachers will hunt them down to extinction level.

We cut down trees without thinking about the consequences.

Wildfires have become frequent around the globe. These destructive fires are another consequence of a warming planet.

In this image, we can observe a waste treatment plant in India. There are surely better ways to treat waste?

Oil is not the energy of the future. But those who profit from it don’t really care, right?

A shepherd photographed in Inner Mongolia cannot stand the smell as he navigates the Yellow River.

In Peru, the rainforest has survived mercury poisoning coming from the south produced by diamond mines.  To the North, oil companies destroy everything they find along the way. This image shows the rainforest burning.

Greenhouses cover the landscape in Almeria, Spain

Mexico City. Need I say more?

An oil platform on Fire in the Gulf Of Mexico.

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We Are Surrounded by Masonic Symbols―How Modern Logos Are Linked To Secret Societies

In the modern world, we are surrounded by countless logos, symbols, and graphs that make up our everyday life.

No matter where we look, willingly or unwillingly, we find ourselves immersed in a deep layer of information that is in turn filled with secret symbols and eerie meanings.

And while ancient societies such as the Illuminati, Masons, etc date back to more ancient times, in the century of communications, icons and logos that we see every day on our screens seem to be paying a subtle tribute to a few of such secret society.

You can’t help but see the similarity.

It takes a while to notice the mystery hidden in symbols we see every day, but once you spot it, it becomes obvious that we live in a world of secrecy and mystery.

Symbols, Freemasonry, Illuminati and secret societies

One of the fundamental characteristics of Freemasonry is the use of the symbols as a channel of communication.

Beyond its immediate and obvious meaning, simple images become symbols carrying a connection between man and the principle they represent and from which they originate.

Similarly, companies that dominate the market resort to a similar philosophy when designing their logos or icons.

Next, we will take a look at some images associated with three of the most dominant companies in the technological world and its equivalent or possible masonic reference.

And because there’s nothing without Facebook…

Facebook is without a doubt one of the most famous social networks in the world, if not the most famous of them all.

Lately, it has also become the most controversial due to its privacy policies, and the leaking of personal information to third parties for commercial and political purposes.

Facebook’s logo is a letter “f” placed inside a blue square.

One could well say that it is not a very thoughtful logo and it is rather simplistic or minimalist. I must admit however that minimalism is sometimes the best way to go.

See what we did there?

However, the position of the letter, off-center, and the fact that it was written in minuscule may have a meaning that not many are aware of.

The mysterious Facebook logo and the company itself may be paying tribute to a mason symbol within the lodges: the Two Ball Cane, aka Tubal Cain.

Notice the wicked similarity?

Scary right?

But Facebook isn’t the only symbols embedded in secrecy as on a daily basis, we come across many more such symbols.

Let’s take a peek at Gmail, the famous mail platform.

Google’s email service is probably the most used in the world.

At first glance, it looks like a sealed envelope, but on a more meticulous inspection, we can see that the red lines (and the color used in the logo is not by chance) that cross and go through the folds form an “M”…

Obviously, M stands for Mail, what’s the mystery there?

What a coincidence, right?

Gmail’s logo has a stunning similarity with the classic masonic apron, a piece of cloth that is fastened to the body at waist height by means of a rope or ribbon.

The Masonic Apron is steeped in spiritual and mystical meanings.

If we take a look at Genesis 3:7 we read that Adam and Even made aprons of fig leaves to hide that which they were most ashamed of, the genital area of the body.

Then the eyes of both of them were opened, and they realized they were naked; so they sewed fig leaves together and made coverings for themselves.

The earliest representations of the Freemason’s Apron are seen on the engraved portrait of Antony Sayer, the first G.M. of the modern Craft. (1717), and on the frontispiece illustration of Anderson’s first Book of Constitutions (1723).

But Facebook and Gmail aren’t the only ones out there embedded in occultism and secrecy, as there are many other symbols.

Let’s take a look at Android App market or Google Play Store.

That’s strange.

The Google Play’s Store icon is an arrow pointing to the right and many would agree that there’s nothing strange to see here right?

We just see the well-known playback button (Play).

However, take a look more closely and you will notice a curious pattern embedded within the symbol itself.

The problem with comparing such symbols is that we need to have something to compare them to, and most people are unaware of the numerous ancient symbols that exist around the globe.

If we compare the Google Play Store logo with the above image we see an undeniable similarity.

In the below Giph image, we see on the left side the Google Play icon, and on the right side the Sigil of Lucifer, also known as the “Seal of Satan,” a symbol used mostly by Satanists.

via GIPHY

The image dates from the sixteenth century, according to the Grimorium Verum, an 18th-century grimoire attributed to one “Alibeck the Egyptian” of Memphis, who purportedly wrote in 1517. Like many grimoires, it claims a tradition originating with King Solomon. that explains how pacts with spirits are carried out, it also details the great diversity of magic formulas and the role played by stamps.

And despite the fact that we looked at two symbols belonging to Google, which may be connected to more occult meanings, there is another third symbol which we explore.

One of the most famous internet browsers on Earth is without a doubt Chrome, made by Google. As I am writing this, I am using Chrome.

According to dat from 2016, Google Chrome is being used by around 2 Billion people.

And while there are many who would disagree with the following similarity, we decided to mention it nonetheless.

This comparison could also be a “999”. Check out more about 999 here.

Although if we consider the above logos and their curious meaning, it becomes easier to make a connection between chrome, and the numbers 666.

The numbers 666 is also referred to as the number of the beast. The Number of the Beast is a term in the Book of Revelation, of the New Testament, that is associated with the Beast of Revelation in chapter 13.

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A Time-Traveling Mystery? Celebrity Images Go Viral After Time Travel Claims

Every single day it seems the internet finds a way to keep parts of our bored society entertained. Lately, it seems that time travel is the new internet thing.

Now, another video has surfaced the internet claiming that time travelers are real and exist all around us.

For evidence, the video offers bizarre images of modern-day celebrities and their ‘lookalikes’ taken a few decades ago.

Some would call it a perfect mystery.

The video uploaded to YouTube channel—wait for it—Time Traveler is titled “Video Proof that shows Time Travel really does exist.” In the video, we see ‘plenty of evidence’ of time traveling people as the footage showcases some of the most eerily similar images of celebrities and their ancient counterparts.

But the time Traveler channel isn’t the only one to have posted such similarities. In fact, more popular YouTube Channel Bright side has done the same in the past, picking out quite a few interesting images:

Many commentators argue its time travel and evidence how celebrities such as Nicolas Cage, Johnny Depp, and Matthew McConaughey have been around longer than anyone would imagine.

The similarities between modern-day celebrities and their ancient lookalikes are striking according to some, and the entire subject is shrouded in mystery, as many of the pictures are convincing, and you can’t deny the similarities.

But is this really the ultimate evidence of time travel?

Among the numerous images presented in the video, we see popular Pirates of The Caribbean actor Johnny Depp and an image of someone who looks eerily similar to him.

It turns out that the image of Depp was first shared by Michael Johnstone, who noticed the incredible resemblance of musician great-grandfather and Mr. Depp.

But in addition to Captain Sparrow, err I mean Johnny Depp, Eddie Murphy is also featured in the video with a man looking very much like him.

The man in the photo looks very similar to Eddie Murphy and is believed to date back to the 1920’s.

However, given the incredible similarities, many people argue the images were photoshopped.

The video also features popular musician Jay-Z.

The lookalike image was believed to have been photographed in the streets of Brooklyn in New York, in 1939. Shawn Corey Carter, popularly known as Jay-Z was born on December 4, 1969, in Brooklyn, New York.

Another famous person to appear in the video is Hollywood mega-star, Nicolas Cage.

The video offers an image believed to have been taken in the 1860’s that looks eerily similar to Mr. Cage.

In fact, Nicolas Cage has spoken out about claims he was a Vampire after the lookalike image surfaced the internet.

Speaking to the David Letterman nighttime show.

Mr. Cage said: “Now look I don’t drink blood, and last time I looked in the mirror I had a reflection, so I’m not going with his vampire theory. I’m just not going to do it.”

But in addition to Mr. Cage, Johnny Depp, and Jay-Z, the time-traveling video also features Matthew McConaughey and his 19th-century lookalike.

The image of Mr. McConaughey was uploaded to Reddit by user Sanders Parker, who said: “The likeness is uncanny. “It was too good not to share. His name was Dr. Andrew Sanders, and he’s also where I get my namesake from.

“Apparently he was the man.”

Oh, and, did I forget to show you this image of Facebook King Mark Zuckerberg and a portrait of King Philip IV of Spain?

What an eerie coincidence how two Kings share so many physical similarities.

Anyway, rather than being time traveling space troopers as the video suggests, these images, as well as countless other photographs found across the internet are only proof that through history on planet Earth, many people have existed who have shared a few physical features that made them look like someone else.

I am also sure that this will continue happening and that in a hundred years or so, similar coincidences will be pointed out.

Check out a few more Celebrities and their ridiculous Historical Doppelgangers here: Business Insider.

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Should Mankind Be Worried? Here Are 5 Alarming Prophecies Written By Nostradamus

Michel de Notre Dame, historically known as Nostradamus is without a doubt one of the greatest prophets to ever exist. The French apothecary is believed to have foreseen countless historical evens long before they occurred. According to reports, Nostradamus is said to have predicted the US Moon Landing, Adolf Hitler’s rise to power, he is believed to have accurately predicted the Death of Henry II, and the JFK & RFK Assassinations among many other historical events.

2018, is of particular interest for those who analyze and study his work. The years has been extremely interesting both scientifically and historically, and despite the fact that many people believe not much will change in comparison to previous years, there are those–specifically those following Nostradamus’ work–believe great changes are upon us.

The French apothecary and seer is believed to have started having visions of the future at a relatively early age.

If we take a look at his greatest work written down in his book ‘The Prophecies’, Nostradamus composed over a thousand four-line poetic verses called “quatrains.” It is precisely in these quatrains where his secrets lay embedded.

Despite the fact that many academic scholars argue that the associations made between historic events and Nostradamus’s quatrains are mostly the product mistranslations, there are millions of people around the world, including news portals around the world that credit him with predicting countless major historic events.

Some of his most famous predictions are listed here below.


The Death of Henry II

“The young lion will overcome the older one, On the field of combat in a single battle; He will pierce his eyes through a golden cage, two wounds made one, then he dies a cruel death.”

In the summer of 1559, King Henry II of France referred to as the older one lined up to joust the Comte de Montgomery, the young lion, six years his junior, on the fields of France or combat. In the final pass, Montgomery’s lance burst through the king’s visor splintering to pieces. Both of them did have lions on their shields. Two shards injured him, one pierced his eye and lodged in the Kings head. Henry II suffered for 10 days before dying in his bed.

The US Moon Landing

He will come to travel to the corner of Luna, where he will be captured and put in a strange land, The unripe fruits to be subject of great scandal, great blame, to one, great praise.

He referred to the Astronauts traveling to the moon, Luna. He, the astronaut was captured on film. Nostradamus used the phrase “the Eagle” as an allusion to the U.S.A. Is it a coincidence that the American lunar landing craft happened to be named “the Eagle”?

Oh, did I say he predicted Donald Trump as becoming President of the United States?

But, what does Nostradamus have for 2018?


The Largest Recorded Earthquake

So far, 2018 and even a part of 2017 was marked by catastrophic earthquakes around the globe. However, it is said that Nostradamus foresaw the largest earthquake in the history of the United States, especially affecting the western area of the United States. However, despite predicting the earthquake in the US, it is believed that the power of the earthquake will be felt in other countries around the world. Let’s hope he was wrong.

People will live more than 200 years

It is believed that the great French seer predicted great advances in medicine, which will extend the average lifespan of human to about 200 years. It is said that Nostradamus wrote how an 80-year-old will look like a 50, year old according. Numerous advancements in medicine have been made and Nostradamus’ predictions may soon become a reality.

Radiation will burn the planet

“Kings steal forests, the sky will open; the fields will be burned by heat,” Nostradamus wrote. This is believed to be a warning that the destruction of Earth’s rainforests will lead to a dangerous hole in the ozone layer and how Earth could be exposed to harmful ultraviolet radiation. Maybe it’s time to pay attention.

Language differences will disappear

“After the invention of a new engine, the world will be like in the days before Babel.” According to some interpretations of Nostradamus’ work, this new ‘engine; could be used like modern-day computers.

The collapse of the global economy

“The rich will die many times,” the French prophet wrote in his quatrains. Curiously, many other ‘Prophets’ like Baba Vanga, Edgar Cayce predicted the same.

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A Mystery In History: The Super-Longevous Antediluvian Patriarchs

The Patriarchs of the Bible are usually defined as being Abraham, his son Isaac, and Isaac’s son Jacob, also named Israel, the ancestor of the Israelites

Biblical Patriarchs play a significant role in religion because it is they who are used as a significant marker by God in revelation and promises.

The term Patriarchs is also used when making reference to the twenty male ancestors that lived between Adam—the first human being on Earth—and Abraham, the founding father of the Covenant.

Ten of these Patriarchs are called Antediluvian Patriarchs because they lived on Earth before the Great Flood swept across the land.

In this article, we take a look at the ten of the Antediluvian Patriarchs and analyses with great interest their peculiar lifespan.

We can resume then that the antediluvian patriarchs correspond to the main characters of the book Genesis, which correspond to Adam, the first man, and his descendants to Noah, one of only eight survivors of the universal Flood.

Super Longevous times…

According to the ancient texts, Noah was the tenth and last of the super-longevous antediluvian patriarchs: Noah died 350 years after the Flood, at the age of 950 years.

This makes him the third longest man in the entire Bible, surpassing even Adam who lived until the age of 930 years.

In proportion to his long life, he fathered three children after the age of 500.

After Noah, lifespan drastically plunged to “only” 120 years, as we see with Moses.

The lifetimes given for the patriarchs in the Book of Genesis are Adam 930 years, Seth 912, Enos 905, Kenan 910, Mahalalel 895, Jared 962, Enoch 365 (did not die but was taken away by God), Methuselah 969, Lamech 777, Noah 950.

In the following graph, we can see the lifespan of the patriarchs as recorded in the Septuagint Black, the Syriac Peshitta Gold, and the Masoretic text Crimson.

A Graph showing the Lifespan of the Biblical Patriarchs. Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons.

What we have is a list of extremely important Biblical characters whose lifespan is unlike anything we’ve encountered before.

This historical fact raises a number of questions which we have not been able to answer.

Were their lives recorded adequately? Did they really live that long? Is it possible that their extreme age is the result of misinterpretations or translation errors?

Is it just part of a myth? Or, is it possible that some of these Patriarchs were not ordinary humans, but in fact messengers from the Gods, aka beings from another world?

Some theories point towards the possibility that their extreme lifespans are the result of translation errors.

Some scholars maintain that the lunar cycles were confused with solar cycles, and the real ages are in fact 13.5 times smaller.

This would mean that Methuselah who is said to have lived to the age of 969 was in fact 71.7 years old when he died. (969/13.5=71,77)

But, just as with the Biblical Patriarchs, the Sumerian King list, as well as the Turin Royal Canon, describe how in the distant past, the lifespan on Earth was anomalously great.

The Turin Royal canon describes, in the final two lines of the column a sort of resume of the entire document where we can read: ‘… Venerables Shemsu-Hor, 13,420 years; Reigns before the Shemsu-Hor, 23,200 years; Total 36,620 years’.

The Sumerian King list, just as the Turin Royal canon describe incredible longevous reigns:

“After the kingship descended from heaven, the kingship was in Eridug. In Eridug, Alulim became king; he ruled for 28800 years. Alaljar ruled for 36000 years. 2 kings; they ruled for 64800 years.”

This is why I ask, is it possible that both the Biblical Patriarchs, the Turin Royal Canon, as well as the Sumerian King List are the result of misinterpretations or translation errors? Or is it possible that all three examples are evidence of beings that inhabited earth thousands of years ago, who somehow lived as if they were true ‘Gods’ with lifespans incomparable to ordinary humans?

Reference: Timeline of the Patriarchs

Featured Image Credit: Leon Tukker, posted with permission.

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Researchers Find 88,000-Year-Old Finger Bone That Rewrites Mankind’s History

Scientists have come across an 88,000-year-old finger bone that promises to rewrite—again—mankind’s history.

The human fossil discovered in Saudi Arabia tells us that our ancestors migrated out of Africa 20,000 years earlier than first believed.

A group of scientists has revealed the discovery of a phalanx belonging to Homo sapiens, fossils of various animals and geological data that suggest that early people may have migrated to the Arabian Peninsula nearly 88,000 years ago.

The discoveries suggest that early man migrated to the Arabian Peninsula when the climate of the region transformed the deserts of the area into humid pastures, which mean that our ancestor migrated towards a friendlier environment that allowed our species to leave Africa, towards Asia, using a route that had experts thought was not possible before.

The discovery offers evidence of the oldest human fossil remains found outside of Africa and the so-called Levante region (Near East) and demonstrates that these populations were able to leave the continent in this way and expand, not in a sporadic way, but in a prolonged way after adapting to this new environment.

The authors of the research, archaeologist Huw Groucutt, of the University of Oxford (United Kingdom), anthropologist Michael Petraglia, of the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History (Germany) and their colleagues have published their results in the journal Nature Ecology and Evolution.

Survey and mapping of the Al Wusta site. Image Credit: Klint Janulis.

The Bone in question

The bone, a 3.2-centimeter phalanx, was unearthed in 2016 at the archaeological site of Al Wusta, which lies in the middle of the An-Nafud desert in northern Saudi Arabia.

The revolutionary bone was scanned using 3D equipment and its shape was compared to various other finger bones, both of recent Homo sapiens individuals, from other species of early humans including Neanderthals.

Using a technique called uranium-series dating, researchers used a laser to make miniature holes in the finger in order to measure the ratio between tiny traces of radioactive elements. These ratios revealed that the fossil was around 88,000 years old.

As noted by experts, the results have conclusively proven the finger bone, the first ancient human fossil found in Arabia, belonged to our own species.

Speaking about the discovery, lead author Dr. Huw Groucutt, of the University of Oxford said:

“This discovery for the first time conclusively shows that early members of our species colonized an expansive region of southwest Asia and were not just restricted to the Levant.”

“The ability of these early people to widely colonize this region casts doubt on long-held views that early dispersals out of Africa were localized and unsuccessful. This finger bone from Al Wusta suggests homo sapiens is moving out of Africa far earlier than 65,000 years ago, it’s 20,000 years earlier than expected.”

Fossil finger bone of Homo sapiens from the Al Wusta site, Saudi Arabia. Image Credit: Ian Cartwright

It is noteworthy to mention that other homo sapiens bones have been dated as far as 177,000 years ago, in a cave in Israel.

Prior to this discovery, experts believed that early migrations to Eurasia were unsuccessful and limited to the to the Mediterranean forests of the Levant, the so-called doorstep of Africa.

However, the fossil discovered in 2016 suggests that our ancestors migrated Arabia after crossing the Red Sea during a time when it was more than just a river.

The finding suggests that early humans ventured out into what is today Arabia sooner than previously believed.

Further analysis of the terrain where the discovery was made has shown that the site used to be a massive freshwater lake in an ancient grassland environment very different from today’s arid desert.

During that time, Arabia was most likely not as dry as it is today, covered with rivers and hundreds of lakes.

“The Arabian Peninsula has long been considered to be far from the main stage of human evolution. This discovery firmly puts Arabia on the map as a key region for understanding our origins and expansion to the rest of the world. As fieldwork carries on, we continue to make remarkable discoveries in Saudi Arabia,” said Professor Michael Petraglia of the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.

For more information about the discovery visit the journal Nature Ecology and Evolution.

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5,000 Years Ago, The Ancient Egyptians Invented The First Synthetic Pigment In History

The Ancient Egyptian Civilization made sure to leave their mark in history.

In addition to building some of the most impressive and mind-bending structures on the surface of the Earth, and being pioneers in astronomy, medicine, architecture, and engineering, the ancient Egyptians invented their blue color: the first synthetic pigment in history, around five thousand years ago.

The blue color has been throughout the history of humanity one of the most sought-after colors, identified with royalty and divinity, mostly because it was a ‘precious color,’ due to the difficulty of obtaining it.

Hieroglyphic carvings and paintings on the interior walls of an ancient Egyptian temple in Dendera. Image Credit: Shutterstock

The ancient Egyptians weren’t’ the only ancient culture to use the color blue.

The blue pigments were used since ancient times, but later than others such as red, black, brown or ocher, which are easier to obtain in nature and which were already used in Paleolithic art across the globe.

If we take a look at history well find that in Europe the color was obtained from isatide (also known as pastel grass), which provided an indigo dye.

In Asia and Africa (Indigofera tinctoria), a shrub whose name also refers to the variety of blue it provides.

However, the most sought-after blue pigment came from minerals such as lapis lazuli— a deep blue metamorphic rock used as a semi-precious stone that has been prized since antiquity for its intense color, scarce and rare, and therefore very expensive.

The largest deposits of lapis lazuli are located in the Hindukush of Afghanistan, where it is still obtained with procedures very similar to those used more than 3,000 years ago.

From there it was exported to the whole ancient world, being used in jewelry and vessels in Mesopotamia and throughout the Middle East.

The Egyptians imported large amounts of lapis lazuli from those mines to obtain the azurite, the powder that provided the blue pigment with which they adorned their temples, weapons, household artifacts, and jewelry.

As noted by the Royal Society of Chemistry, “Whether its discovery came about by design or chance, the synthesis of Egyptian blue was a seriously impressive accomplishment. Achieving the necessary temperature control for a successful reaction would have been a major challenge, as indeed would the correct addition of oxygen.”

Blue faience saucer and stand, New Kingdom (1400-1325 BC). Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons.

Its price was so high that even in medieval times it still quadrupled that of gold.

Mostly because of the lack of lapis lazuli, and its incredibly high cost, around 3000 BC the ancient Egyptians looked for ways to make their own blue pigment.

Little by little, they perfected the technique, which consisted of grinding silica, lime, copper and an alkaline base, and then heating it to 800-900 degrees Celsius.

The result: the first synthetic pigment in history, referred to as Egyptian Blue, a name that was used from the beginning of the 19th century to distinguish it from the rest of blue pigments.

As pioneers in the field, the ancient Egyptians used it to paint wood, papyri, and canvases, color enamels, inlays, and vessels.

But they also used their synthetic blue in funeral masks, statuettes and paintings of various tombs, as they believed that the color protected the dead from evil in the afterlife.

They even colored the cloths in which the mummies were wrapped in.

According to scholars, the first evidences of the use of the Egyptian blue were identified by Lorelei H. Corcoran in an alabaster vessel, dated in the Naqada III culture of the Predynastic period (around 3200-3000 BC), found in 1898 in the excavations of Hierakonpolis in Upper Egypt, which also carries an inscription with the name of the Scorpion King.

The pigment continued to be manufactured and used throughout Antiquity, even by the Greeks (in the sculptures of the Parthenon) and the ancient Romans, at least until the last years of the Western Roman Empire (AD 395), when the technique fell into oblivion, and the secret of the formula seemed to be lost forever.

No ancient Egyptian text makes reference to the method of production.

The first testimony we have comes from the ancient Roman architect Marcus Vitruvius Pollio, who lived in the first century BC., and he described it in his work De Architectura.

According to Vitruvio, it was produced by mixing sand, copper and natron.

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Researchers Find 50 New Nazca Lines Which Predate The Nazca Culture

According to reports, up to fifty new Nazca lines have been discovered by experts, and some of them are among the oldest lines ever found, predating the Nazca culture by around one hundred years.

A group of researchers has made a stunning discovery in the Nazca desert in Peru.

With the help of satellite images and drones, archeologists have managed to uncover 50 new Nazca Lines and numerous other mysterious geoglyphs carved into the earth by a mysterious people, thousands of years ago.

Some of the newly found Nazca lines are reminiscent of Pyramids.

Lines and Geoglyphs of Nazca, Peru – collage (From top left: seabird, hand, pelican, condor, giant, whale, spider, monkey, dog, scorpion, hummingbird) (Shutterstock)

Thousands of years ago, for a reason scientists still can’t comprehend, a mysterious civilization drew massive geoglyphs and figures into the Nazca desert in Peru. Thousands of these strange geoglyphs cover the sandy soil of the Nazca province which in addition to the strange sandy is home to various elongated skulls.

Photo: Luis Jaime Castillo (National Geographic)

The Nazca lines vary in complexity: So far, experts have distinguished hundreds of simple lines and geometric shapes; more than 70 zoomorphic designs of animals, such as birds, fish, llamas, jaguars, and monkeys, or human figures, and other designs including phytomorphic shapes, such as trees and flowers.

And when experts thought they had cataloged and found all the Nazca lines there is, a eureka moment struck them after a survey performed with drones and satellites revealed 50 new Nazca lines in the arid desert landscape.

While most of the Nazca lines were carved by the Nazca people, researchers say that the newly found lines were carved by the cultures predating the Nazca; the Paracas and Topará cultures between 500 B.C. and 200 A.D.

Experts explain that unlike the famous Nazca lines—most of which are best seen from the air—the Paracas glyphs were laid down on hillsides, making them visible to villages below, reports National Geographic.

“Most of these figures are warriors,” says Peruvian archaeologist Luis Jaime Castillo Butters, the new glyphs’ co-discoverer. “These ones could be spotted from a certain distance, so people had seen them, but over time, they were completely erased.”

Scientists explain that centuries before the Nazca people created the world-famous Nazca lines, people in the region were experimenting with making massive geoglyphs.

“This means that it is a tradition of over a thousand years that precedes the famous geoglyphs of the Nasca culture, which opens the door to new hypotheses about its function and meaning,” archaeologist Johny Isla of the Peruvian Ministry of Culture, who is in charge of restoring and protecting the lines, told National Geographic.

Most of these new figures are warriors. The new glyphs are not even registered as part of UNESCO’s world heritage, but fortunately, they are not in danger.

In fact, their discovery will keep them away from urban projects or roads.

Source: National Geographic.

Featured image credit: Shutterstock

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